This page provides links to a number of web sites that are not affiliated with the Growth and Infrastructure Consortium (GIC) but that contain information related to impact fees and other issues that may be of interest to our members. GIC makes no warranty about the accuracy of the information posted on these web sites.

Local Governments

Georgia Department of Community Affairs, Impact Fees (links to several publications)

Legal Resources

Legal Information Institute, Links to State Statutes on the Web

Clancy Mullen, State Impact Fee Enabling Acts, updated February 2018 — a compilation and summary by an impact fee consultant of general impact fee enabling acts adopted by the 28 states that have them

Ed Young, TN Advisory Comm on Intergovtl Relations, Paying for Growth: Development Taxes and Impact Fees, 2002 — a summary of special acts and generalized authority for impact fees and development taxes in Tennessee

Deborah Galardi, Tyson Smith and Fred McVey, Oregon Law on System Development Charges, 2003


Liza Bowles and Arthur C. Nelson, Impact Fees: Equity and Housing Affordability, A Guidebook for Practitioners, HUD, April 2007

Arthur C. Nelson and Mitch Moody, Paying for Prosperity: Impact Fees and Job Growth, Brookings Institution, June 2003. The authors find that impact fees are not a drag on local economies. They do not appear to slow job growth, and may actually benefit local economic development by increasing the supply of buildable land with access to infrastructure.

Dr. Vicki Been, Impact Fees and Housing Affordability, 2004 HUD-sponsored research

Deborah Galardi, et. al., Utility Development Fee Trends, 2003

Reference Tools

U.S. Census, American FactFinder

U.S. Census, Building Permits by County or Place

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Price Index

Fee Surveys

Duncan Associates, National Impact Fee Survey: 2015, Nov. 2015 – Introduced by a summary of 2015 fees and recent trends, this on-going survey by an impact fee consultant includes 270 jurisdictions and a summary of fee trends from 2008-2015. Average fees per dwelling unit or per 1,000 square feet of nonresidential development by facility type for single-family detached, multi-family, retail, office and industrial land uses.

League of Oregon Cities, System Development Charges, May 2007 — a survey of Oregon cities with transportation, park, water, wastewater and drainage fees per single-family unit and for a prototype office building.

GAO, Survey of Local Growth Issues, 2000. The U.S. Government Accountability Office surveyed 1,926 local governments, including all cities with populations over 25,000 and all counties in metropolitan areas) on whether they charged impact fees and received an 81-percent response rate.

Maryland counties, total impact fee per single-family unit in 2006 and estimated revenues in 2005, in an analysis of legislation for St. Mary’s County

Jefferson County, CO, Colorado Drainage Impact Fees, August 2005

Diane Kushlan, Survey of Impact Fees in Idaho, October 2004


U.S. Dept. of Transportation, National Household Travel Survey, 2009

Florida Dept. of Transportation, Quality/Level of Service Handbook

David P.Racca, “Active Adult (55+) Community Trip Generation Rates,” prepared for the Delaware Center for Transportation and the Delaware Department of Transportation, Center for Applied Demography and Survey Research, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware, January 2006